tv BBC World News America PBS September 22, 2014 2:30pm-3:01pm PDT
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>> tradition. history. culture. discover the best memories of your life. and now "bbc world news america." >> this is "bbc world news america." a surge of refugees, tens of thousands are fleeing syria to escape the islamic state. now turkey is struggling to look after them all. >> the sheer numbers in the space of four days alone would overwhelm any country. officials here say that another
200,000 could still come. next even to hong kong begin a week of protests, demanding that beijing give them greater democratic rights. injures theraft orbit of mars. that now the big question, what exactly will it find? welcome to our viewers on public television here in america around the globe. tonight the turkish government is warning that the wave of refugees leaving islamic state fighters could rise to hundreds of thousands. in the past four days alone, at least 130,000 men, women, and children are thought to have crossed the border into turkey. the need for aid is very urgent. mark is there and has this report.
>> they took what they could and headed north. away from the danger of militant fighters and toward the sanctuary of turkey. kurds carrying remnants of their lives. even the weakest forced to flee. her with her baby, born yesterday before crossing the border. of having toerror leave on the day she gave birth. she had not yet given it a name. >> no country cares. >> fear span the generations. she says she does not know her age, but think she is 38. she fled with 28 members of her family. >> i can never go back to my
bill is because we lost everything. and no one isown left there. anyone who escaped could. they had room for 138,000 to come over, but that has already been exceeded. officials here say that another 200,000 could still come as it islamic state fighters close in. the militants continue to advance on the syrian-kurdish area, firing on neighboring villages. today kurdish fighters push them back a few miles. a spokesman said kurds would be killed. with kurds is a religious war. it is not a naturalistic war. we do not fight kurds because
they are kurds, rather we fight the disbelievers, the allies of the crusaders. quick on the border, clashes again beat -- between turkish crossing intos syria to battle islamic state. tension here has boiled over. as turkey tries to find a home for the new arrivals, they take refuge in the local mosque. the country is struggling to cope as more waves prepared to come, seeking solace from the growing threat. >> with the exodus of refugees in the fight against islamic as ambassadored to both turkey and iraq. we're looking at the prospect of literally hundreds of thousands of kurds crossing from syria into turkey over the space of a
few days. >> this is unprecedented in terms of the syrian more, turkey has taken almost a million refugees so far. this will strain the capacity of the turks. also those moving into this region to try to fight off the isis fighters. there is a risk that if turkey is in careful, the isis people or launch suicide bombers rockets across the border. they did that before and killed 50 people, so there is that risk. basically, turkey is a stable country. it has a strong and large military and the turks are under tremendous growing pressure now that they have their hostages from their counsel at mosul back. we are seeing extraordinary changes over the middle east in the last few weeks since president obama began the bombing. >> turkey as we know has been a passage for islamic state
fighters moving into syria. are they prepared to shut that down and to shut down the flow of this money moving across that border to islamic state fighters? quickset is a great question. the turks are saying they will. they see the syrian government as the number one enemy and they want to ensure the flow of -- >> so they have a vested interest in helping isis. >> what we're learning now is they don't have a vested interest in helping isis. they're going to have to discriminate between people who are flowing into support the general fight against a side, which is a very popular cause in syria, and people loading into support the organization, because that much -- that must stop. it possible to distinguish between moderate syrian groups, arm them, help them, and not push them and their weapons into the hands of the islamic state?
>> it's not completely possible to do anything in that part of the world, but it's possible to do a lot better than we are doing now. i think we can find people who will fight the syrian government and isis and not just run over to their side. >> what would you have washington and the administration do right now? >> we have a crisis in this town. i think we should have planes in the air. if the ice is are using tanks and artillery, these are the targets we can take out. that was the turning point when we had american strikes. >> exactly. when you stop the isis people in one area, what do they do? they find another area to attack. you cannot contain these people. as president obama has asserted he would do, let's start destroying them. students havef been protesting in hong kong against the chinese government's plan to restrict democratic elections in the city. tiny's leadership announced
candidates for an upcoming -- then would be government says western-style democracy would bring chaos to hong kong. protest on this scale is rare in hong kong. the students are determined to get beijing's attention. it promised one person, one vote. some are planning civil disobedience if this protest doesn't work. >> we are here to fight for our democracy and test the government to give us the democracy that promise. >> i want my voice to be heard. i want people who have the same opinion to be heard. we want genuine universal
coverage for hong kong. not preparede are to accept the government line that any vote is a no vote. >> but the younger not the only ones campaigning. protest threaten prosperity. and the british or american democracy would bring chaos. >> what is good for their kingdom may not be good for hong kong. we are a special administrative region of china, not a state. facing a very someus period where people's confidence is shaken.
is famously hard-nosed and pragmatic. it is also used to the free trade of goods and ideas and has come to cherish its freedom. for as long as anyone can , there is now growing gulf between some citizens and their increasingly confident and uncompromising rulers in beijing. the best hope for democracy in hong kong is probably more democracy in china. and that currently seems a distant prospect. >> for more on these protest, i spoke with short time ago with christopher johnson, a former china analyst at the cia. he is now senior adviser for the center for strategic studies. when you look back, it was
inevitable we were going to get to where we are today with hong kong and beijing clashing over democracy. >> what was interesting was how beijing took a very hands-off approach for the first decade. it oversaw hong kong's affairs, and how that his change in the last couple of years under the new leadership. there are number of reasons, a lot of it is personal. i think the previous chinese leaders have personal contacts in hong kong and when things would get difficult, they would suggest this would be fine. he seems to take a much tougher approach to the island as we saw in meetings he had today with prominent hong kong business tycoons were reemphasized a much stronger role for beijing in overseeing hong kong going forward. >> they have also been very brave and protesting at all. do you think they can have an impact for the pro-democracy movements going on in hong kong? >> the centerpiece is what happens with the occupy central
to discussions in protest we are expecting in the coming weeks and whether they can put sufficient pressure on the hong kong government and also the hong kong government has no real ability to shape the approach going forward. situation where they start to threaten hong kong's reputation as a place that works, it is likely -- >> the alternative here, the risk must be that he gets involved in the democratic process in hong kong. what makes hong kong attractive to outside investors and a vibrant economic entity in and of itself starts to diminish. rule of law in a democratic process, we are not interested in hong kong. is that a risk? >> it is a risk. but to start viewing hong kong as more of just a large tiny city going forward and having other cities compete with hong kong for that special status they have for investment and
foreign trade. the oneere a way for country-two systems notion to work? >> it's whether or not beijing ultimately will allow for universal suffrage. i think it's very unlikely this point. think about it from the chinese leadership's point of view. how can they say to hong kong, pick your own leaders, you have full autonomy. >> they have done it for the last 15 or 16 years. >> only through the mechanism of a advisory policy. beijing iswhat ultimately concerned about? >> ultimately democracy in hong kong becomes an issue for democracy on the mainland and they are not ready to open that spigot yet inside of china. >> you're watching bbc world news america.
still to come on tonight's program, for more than a century they have been the first family of oil. that announcement by the rockefellers is worth listening to today. storing your golden britain's royal mint might sound like the kind of thing you'd do if you happen to be born in buckingham palace. now they are encouraging the general public to trade gold and silver. if you prefer to shove it in the matches, they will deliver those coins to your home. as part of a grand scheme to give ordinary investors of trouble with the idea of buying or precious metals. we went to the meant, looked at the coins, and checked it all out for us. egyptians wanted to be buried in it. kings, wiens, governments worldwide stockpiled piles of it. the allure of gold is undimmed.
these bullion coins offer the public the chance to get their hands on some of that wealth. now on sale direct from the royal mint, they can be traded online, bought and sold according to the market price. one of these gold or tenure coins is worth around 800 pounds. buyers can have it sent to their home address or for an x to fee it can be held in the vault at the meant under the armed guard of the ministry of defense. it has seen an opportunity to cash in with the growing market for gold. estimated to be worth around 4 billion pounds in the u.k. brothers crashn in 2008 there has been a -- there has been an increase in gold and silver a read with gold
prices dropping by one third in the last three years, investors should remember values can rise and fall before they strike a deal. >> the name rockefeller come along synonymous with big oil in america, now wants to take on an entirely new meaning. clean energy. heirs of the rockefeller fortune say they will get the money out and reinvested in renewable energy. the announcement comes a day of the united nations climate change summit. i spoke with the new york times national correspondent. >> he built his fortune on oil and extracting oil and other fuels from the ground. on the other hand, his family members said to me if he were alive today, he was such an
innovator and entrepreneur, he would see the opportunity in alternative fuels and he would be investing heavily. >> so how significant is this? >> they have an $860 million philanthropic fund, the rockefeller brothers fund. they are going to begin the process of unwinding fossil fuel investments from that fund. they've already gotten rid of al and anything associated with those forms of fuel. big didn't really say how that was. they did not have me a number on how much they expected to ultimately divest, but it's a it's -- they, and off what wasling left of standard oil stock for some time. they have been getting away from
exxon mobil. they are still shareholders but not the major shareholders they were when standard oil was broken up under john d rockefeller. >> the move had already started to happen. it should not come as a total shock that the rockefeller foundation would do this as they had already made similar moves in that direction. >> they had not been talking about it much prefer or several generations that have been tremendous environmentalists. they have been great aides to the environmental cause. but this is a way which are meant the symbolism of saying we are also getting out of the business that made our fortune. >> that symbolism, how much will that have knock on effects to other foundations and organizations watching this divest campaign? >> the groups that have been trying to get institutions like nonprofits, small government groups to divest, had about 17 organizations when they announced in january, and today 180.announced they have
so things are rolling, but it's still not the majority of the world out there. it's just a very significant rise since this divestment movement began. >> we saw yesterday in new york houses of people to to the streets in a climate change march. we saw that around the united nations general simply as well. we have cities and states doing individual things, but the truth is there is no appetite at a federal level to really move on climate change. >> let's rearrange that sentence a little bit. what is there a mood to move on in washington right now? not much gets done it all. the fact that climate change isn't happening, if it were, would not be shocking if congress did something? we would be shocked. i would be shocked. >> thanks very much for joining me. the nasa spacecraft maven has
been traveling for nearly a year to get to mars. now it has finally arrived at the red planet's orbit and is about to begin its mission, and unprecedented study of the atmosphere of mars. but nasa's latest mission to mars, after a 10 month journey, the maven spacecraft is now in orbit around the red planet. delight of the mission control team. ,> we are in our bed in mars mars, guys.bit at >> sometimes it is rocket science. this is what mars was like 4 billion years ago. i have a double world with flowing water and thick clouds. similar, in many ways, to the earth. howmission is to find out it became this dry, dusty planet
we see today. >> the climate has changed on mars significantly over the past 2 billion years. trying to understand what the cause of that climate change has been. in essence, that is our goal, to answer the question, where did the water and carbon dioxide go? >> maven will be joined by an indian based craft which will also be in the atmosphere. with the curiosity rover on the ground, scientists will know more about the red planet and ever before. but all our missions really add up to enabling us to figure out how humans will be able to go to mars, survive for long periods of time, colonize the planet, literally, over time. >> the spacecraft will spend the year in orbit around mars, taking detailed measurements of the atmosphere that is still escaping from the planet. >> for more on maven, we spoke
with a geologist at the smithsonian center for earth and planetary studies. tois a huge question, trying find out why mars went from what it was to what it is today. and maven do that? >> maven is giving us a perspective on the apparatus on mars. we have two rovers on the surface. now maven is there to look at the uppermost parts of the atmosphere and determine why that atmosphere is as it is. curiosity is seeing evidence on the ground of poland is standing -- of standing water. it has found minerals that have been deposited by water. the big question now is why did the martian climate change from the early warmer, wetter conditions it has seen to the cold, dry desert that it is today. maven is looking at how the atmosphere -- >> tell us that.
>> the atmosphere of today is a small fraction of what it was in the past. earlier the atmosphere was sticker. by looking at the components of the atmosphere and looking at the process by which the particles coming from the sun are stripping off the martian atmosphere, they can look backward in time and get a better idea what the martian atmosphere was like early on. >> why the big mars push at the moment? >> mars is one of the most habitable places in the solar system. >> i'm not sure it is terribly habitable. >> you can find places on the earth that look a lot like mars. placethe most habitable for humans, if you're going to put a base anywhere in the solar system where you had to spend some time working or outside, mars is it. mars also has some of the best potential for early life in the history of the solar system. >> do people really think that is possible? this is not science fiction that
you are telling me here? opportunitys you an to look back in time at the early history of the solar system as well. putting a base on the service would give you a great opportunity to do that. the rovers and orbiters are telling us a lot about what the early history of the earth might look like. the surfacereshaped of the earth over time. the surface of mars is like a time capsule of the early history of the solar system. >> should we be booking our ticket and investing in real estate? 2040, 2050, something like that. i hope to see it in my lifetime. >> do you think it is possible? >> what we lack is political will. technologically we could put together a system that could get us there and a reasonable amount of time. a year toen has taken get there. >> 10 months, exactly. you would have to have a
spacecraft that is shielded to protect astronauts against radiation and solar flares. >> i'm not sure i'm going to sign up terribly quickly. i think they have to fix that journey time, that is a long time it will take to get to mars. that brings the show to a close. find much more on our website. find me on twitter. from all of us here, thanks so much for watching. >> funding of this presentation is made possible by the freeman foundation, newman's own foundation, giving all profits to charity and pursuing the common good for over 30 years, kovler foundation, beijing tourism, and union bank. ♪
captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions >> ifill: hundreds of thousands of syrian refugees flee into turkey to escape attacks by the islamic state group. we talk with syria's opposition leader who argues u.s. military assistance to moderate rebel forces, will be used to fight the assad regime not just the extreme militants. good evening, i'm gwen ifill. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. also ahead this monday, protesters converge on wall street to call attention to climate change. as some investors pledge to abandon their support of fossil fuels. >> ifill: plus, as efforts to control ebola have succeeded for now in senegal and nigeria, cases in liberia continue to doe